بررسی مقاومت نژادگان‌های انتخابی گندم نان در مراحل گیاهچه‌ای و گیاه کامل نسبت به پاتوتیپ غالب عامل بیماری زنگ زرد در شرایط گلخانه و مزرعه در استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

3 مربی پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه و دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه کردستان

4 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان


در این پژوهش واکنش 24 نژادگان (ژنوتیپ) گندم منتخب تجاری و رگه (لاین)­های در دست معرفی استان کرمانشاه نسبت به نژاد غالب قارچ عامل بیماری زنگ زرد (6E158A+) بررسی شد. مقاومت گیاهچه­ایی در شرایط گلخانه و مقاومت گیاه کامل در شرایط گندمزار از راه ایجاد آلودگی مصنوعی با استفاده از اسپور عامل بیماری ارزیابی و پس از یادداشت‌برداری تجزیۀ داده­ها انجام گرفت. نتایج تجزیۀ خوشه‌ای داده­ها بر پایۀ تیپ آلودگی در مرحلۀ گیاهچه‌ای نشان داد، 8 درصد نژادگان­ها دارای ژن­هایی مقاوم با اثر کوچک و یا ژن­هایی بزرگ اثر که تظاهر مقاومت آن­ها ناقص است، هستند و دیگر نژادگان­ها توسط ژن­های بزرگ اثر کنترل می­شوند. در مرحلۀ گیاه کامل میزان سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری (AUDPC) و میزان نسبی سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری (rAUDPC) نژادگان­های گندم محاسبه شد. تجزیۀ خوشه­ای نژادگان­ها بر پایۀ تیپ آلودگی برگ اول گیاه در مرحلۀ گیاهچه­ای با سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری نشان داد، 29 درصد نژادگان­ها دارای حساسیت در مرحلۀ گیاهچه و گیاه کامل، 8 درصد نژادگان­ها در مرحلۀ گیاهچه­ای حساس و در مرحلۀ گیاه کامل مقاوم و 25 درصد نژادگان­ها مقاومت در هر دو مرحلۀ رشدی گیاه گندم داشتند. نتایج مشخص کرد میان تیپ آلودگی برگ اول در مرحلۀ گیاهچه­ای با ضریب آلودگی و AUDPC برگ پرچم همبستگی بالا و معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال 1 درصد وجود دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the seedling and full-grown plant resistance of wheat genotypes to the yellow rust dominant pathotype in Kermanshah Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rojin Moradi 1
  • Jahanshir Amini 2
  • Gholamhoosain Ahmadi 3
  • Hediyeh Badakhshan 4
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Instructor, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kermanshah Province, and Ph. D. Candidate, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Responses of twenty four selected wheat genotypes including commercial cultivars and isogenic lines against the yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; 6E158A+ pathotype) were evaluated in Kermanshah province, Iran. Infection type and disease severity as the resistance characteristics were studied in greenhouse and field conditions for seedlings and adult plants respectively. Cluster analysis of seedling stages based on infection type indicated that 8% of the genotypes had probably resistant genes with minor while major effects and other genotypes were controlled by major effect genes. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and relative area under disease progress curve (rAUDPC) criteria were calculated for wheat genotypes in adult plants stages. Cluster analysis using infection type of the first leaf data showed that 29% of the genotypes were susceptible in seedling and adult plant stages; 8% of genotypes were sensitive in the seedling stage but resistant in the adult stage. Additionally, it was found that 25% of the genotypes were resistant in whole periods of growth. High significant correlation (P≤0.01) was calculated for the infection type of the first leaf and two other parameters included AUDPC of flag leaf and infection coefficient.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adult plant resistance
  • infection type
  • seedling resistance
  • Wheat
  • yellow rust
Abbasi, M., Hedjaroude, G., Scholler, M. & Goodwin, S. (2004). Taxonomy of Puccinia striiformis in Iran. Rustaniha, 5, 199-224. (in Persian with English Summary).
Afshari, F. (2006). Inheritance of Resistance to Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in some Cultivars and Promising Lines of Wheat. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 22(4), 489-501.
Afshari, F. (2008). Identification of virulence factors of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust in Iran. In: Proceedings of International wheat genetics symposium, Brisbane, Australia. Page 106.
Afshari, F. (2011). Identification of virulence factors of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust in Iran by trap nursery, 2007-10. Technical Registered, 9, 323.
Afshari, F. (2013). Determination of physiological races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Iran. Final report, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, 23 pp. (in Farsi)
Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims C.W. & Blackwell, M. (1996). Introductory Mycology. Fourth edition. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, pp 868.
Ali, S., Shah, S. J. A. & Ibrahim, M. (2007). Assessment of wheat breeding lines for slow yellow rusting (Puccinia striiformis var tritici). Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 10, 3440-3444.
Bariana, H. S. & McIntosh, R. A. (1995). Genetics of adult plant resistance in four Australian and the French cultivar Hybrid de Bersee. Plant Breeding, 114, 485-491.
Biffen, R. H. (1905). Mendel’s laws of inheritance and wheat breeding. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1, 4-48.
Broers, L. H. M. (1997). Components of quantitative resistance to yellow rust in ten spring bread wheat cultivars and their relation with field assessments. Euphytica, 96, 215-23.
Broers, L. H. M. & Lopez-Atilano, R. M. (1993). Components of adult resistance in bread wheat to stripe rust. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Plant Pathology. 85 P.
Broers, L. H. M., Subias, X. C. & Atilano, R. M. K. (1996). Field assessment of quantitative resistance to yellow rust in ten spring bread wheat cultivars. Euphytica, 90, 9-16.
Carver, B. F. (2009). Wheat science and trade. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 616.
Chen, X. M. (2013). Review article: high-temperature adult-plant resistance, key for sustainable control of stripe rust. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 608-627.
Huerta-Espino, J., Singh, R. P., Germa´n, S., McCallum, B. D., Park, R. F., Chen, W. Q., Bhardwaj, S. C. & Goyeau, H. (2011). Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica,179, 143-160.
Johanson, R. (1980). Genetics of adult- plant resistance to yellow rust in winter wheat cultivars. Proceedings 5th European and Mediterranean Cereal Rust Conference, P. 59-63.
Line, R.F. & Chen, X.M. (1995). Success in breeding for and managing durable resistance to wheat rusts. Plant Disease, 79, 1254-1255.
Ma, H. & Singh, R. P. (1996). Contributions of adult plant resistance gene Yr18 in protecting wheat from yellow rust. Plant Disease, 80, 66-69.
McIntosh, R. A., Wellings, C. R. & Park, R. F. (1995). Wheat Rusts: An atlas of resistance genes. CSIRO, Australia, P, 200.
McNeal, F. H., Konzak, C. F., Smith, E. P., Tate, W. S. & Russell, T. S. (1971). A uniform system for recording and processing cereal research data. United State Department of Agricultural Research Services. ARS, P, 34
Nazari, K., Mafi, M., Yahyaoui, A., Singh, R. P. & Park, R. P. (2009). Detection of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) race TTKSK (Ug99) in Iran. Plant Disease, 93, 317-317.
Nazari, K., Wellings, C. R. & Park, R. F. (2008). Characterization of Seedling Resistance to Rust Diseases in Wheat Cultivars from Central Asia and the Caucasus. International Journal of Plant Breeding, 2, 52-63.
Parlevliet, J. E. (1981). Race non-specific resistance. In: Jenkyn, J. F. and Plumb, R. T. (eds.). Strategies for the control of Cereals Disease, Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, pp, 47-54.
Parlevliet, J. E. (1988). Resistance of the non-race-specific type. In: Roelfs, A.P. and Bushnell, W.R. The Cereal Rusts, Vol. II: Disease, Distribution, Epidemiology and Control. Academic Press, Orelando, USA, pp, 501-525.
Parlevliet, J. E., Lindhout, W. H., Ommeran, A. & Kuiper, H. J. (1980). Level of partial resistsnce to leat rust, Puccinia hordei, in West- European barley and how to select for it. Euphytica, 29, 1-8.
Pathan, A. K. & Park, R. F. (2006). Evaluation of seedling and adult plant resistance to leaf rust in European wheat cultivars. Euphytica, 149, 327-342.
Peterson, R. F., Campbell, A. B. & Hannah, A. E. (1948). A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research, 26, 496-500.
Rajaram, S. (2005). Role of conventional plant breeding and biotechnology in future wheat production. Turkish Journal of Agriculture, 29, 105-111.
Roelfs, A. P., Singh, R. P. & Saari, E. E. (1992). Rust Diseases of Wheat. Concepts and Methods of Disease Management. CIMMYT. Mexico, pp, 81.
Safavi, S. A. & Afshari, F. (2012). Identification of resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in some elite wheat lines. Journal of Crop Protection, 1 (4), 293-302.
Shah, S. J. A., Khan, A. J., Azam, F., Mirza, J. I. & Rehman, A. U. (2003). Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some ICARDA bread wheat lines in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 46, 443-446.
Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P., Huerta-Espino, J., Jin, Y., Bhavani, S., Njau, P., Herrera-Foessel, S., Singh, P. K., Singh, S. & Govindan, V. (2011). The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 49, 465-481.
Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P., Jin, Y., Lagudah, E. S., Ayliffe, M. A., Bhavani, S., Rouse, M. N., Pretorius, Z.A., Szabo, L. J. & Huerta-Espino, J. (2015). Emergence and spread of new races of wheat stem rust fungus: Continued threat to food security and prospects of genetic control. Phytopathology, 105, 872-884.
Singh, R., Huerta-Espino, J. & William, M. (2002). Additive genes for durable resistance to yellow rust in wheat: Genetics, Molecular mapping and Breeding at CIMMIT. Meeting the Challenge of yellow in cereal crops. ICARDA published: P, 4-12.
Syme, J. R. & Thompson, J. P. (1986). Stripe rust reactions of Australasian wheat. Euphytica, 35(2), 393-402.
Torabi, M., Madoukhi, V., Nazari, K., Afshari, F., Forootan, A.R., Ramai, M. A., Golzar, H. & Kashani, A. S. (1995). Effectiveness of wheat yellow rust resistance genes in different parts of Iran. Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin, 1, 9-12.
Umrani, A., Khodarahmi, M. & Afshari, F. (2011). Study on resistance of wheat commercial cultivars to yellow rust to some isolates (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) from different regions of Iran. Journal of Crop Sciences, 7(1), 55-68.
Wellings, C. R. & McIntosh, R. A. (1998). Host- Pathogen studies of wheat stripe rust in Australia. pp. 336-338. In: Slinkard, A. E. (ed.). Proceedings of the 9th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Vol. 3, 207 Agust 1998, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Wilcoxson, R. D., Skovmand, B. & Atif, A. H. (1975). Slow rusting of wheat varieties in the field correlated with stem rust severity on detached leaves in the greenhouse. Plant Disease Reporter, 58, 1085-1087.
Zadoks, J. C. (1961). Yellow rust of wheat, studies of epidemiology and physiologic specialization. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 67, 69-256.
Zahravi, M., Ghannadha, M. R., Taleei, A., Zeinali, H. & Torabi, M. (2007). Genetic analysis of resistance to two pathotypes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (6E134A+ and 13E148A+) in bread wheat. Journal of Agricultural Natural Resource, 13(2), 103-114. (in Farsi)