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اثر گیاهخواریTetranychus urticae ، Trialeurodes vaporariorum وAphis gossypii روی عملکرد و ترجیح افراد هم‌گونه به‌واسطۀ میزبان گیاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

پاسخ دفاعی القایی گیاهان به گیاهخواری می‌تواند برهمکنش گیاه را با دیگر موجودات زنده که از آن به‌عنوان غذا استفاده می‌کنند، تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. در این پژوهش آزمایش‌هایی انجام گرفت تا مشخص شود که آیا عملکرد و ترجیح سه آفت Trialeurodes vaporariorum،Tetranychus urticae وAphis gossypii  تحت تأثیر گیاهخواری افراد هم‌گونه روی گیاه خیار قرار می‌گیرد، و اینکه آیا این اثرات به‌صورت موضعی است و یا سیستمیک. طول عمر، زادآوری، و طول دورۀ رشد و نمو قبل از بلوغ به‌عنوان معیارهای عملکرد بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که گیاهخواری این آفات می‌تواند مکانیسم مقاومت القایی گیاه خیار را فعال کرده و عملکرد و ترجیح افراد هم­گونه را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. در مورد شتۀ ­پنبه طول عمر و زادآوری، در مورد کنۀ دولکه‌ای زادآوری و طول دورۀ رشد و نمو، و در مورد سفید­بالک زادآوری به‌طور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر منفی گیاهخواری افراد هم گونه قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمایش‌های عملکرد بسته به ویژگی­ زیستی مورد بررسی و سطح ­بررسی (موضعی و یا سیستمیک) بین خنثی و منفی متغیر بود، هیچ اثر مثبتی در این برهمکنش‌ها مشاهده نشد. بر اساس نتایج می‌توان اشاره کرد که گیاهخواری سفید­بالک گلخانه، کنۀ دولکه­ای و شتۀ پنبه می‌تواند باعث القای مکانیسم مقاومت در گیاه خیار شود و ترجیح افراد هم­گونه را تحت تأثیر قرار ‌دهد. اما سفیدبالک قادر نبود که آسیب وارده شده به گیاه بر اثر گیاهخواری توسط افراد هم­گونۀ خود را تشخیص دهد با اینکه این گیاهان اثر منفی روی عملکرد سفیدبالک داشتند. بر اساس نتایج ترجیح می­توان نتیجه گرفت که توانایی کنۀ دولکه‌ای برای تشخیص گیاهان میزبان مناسب به‌طور محسوسی بیشتر از بقیه بود. عملکرد اثر مقاومت القایی روی عملکرد گیاهخوار همیشه با آزمایش‌های ترجیح حشره هم­راستا نیست. انجام همزمان آزمایش‌های ترجیح و عملکرد گیاهخوار علاوه بر اثر القای مقاومت می‌تواند حساسیت گیاهخوار به تغییر کیفیت میزبان گیاهی را نشان دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of pest herbivory on performance and preference of conspecifics mediated by host plant

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Nazeri 1
  • Hossein Allahyari 2
  • Seyed Hossein Goldansaz 3
1 Ph. D. Candidate, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Induced defense responses of a plant to herbivory can influence interactions of that plant with subsequent organisms that use it as a food source. In this study, we conducted several experiments in order to understand whether preference and performance of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Tetranychus urticae, and Aphis gossypii are affected by the previous herbivory of conspecific on the cucumber plant; and whether these effects are local or systemic. Longevity, fecundity, and pre-imaginal development period were measured as performance criteria. About A. gossypii; longevity andfecundity, about of T. urticae; fecundity and pre-imaginal development period, and about T. vaporariorum fecundity negatively affected by the previous herbivory of conspecifics. Results indicated that herbivory of these pests can induce resistance in cucumber, and can affect preference and performance of conspecifics. Results of performance experiments variedfrom negative to neutral depending on the performance criteria and the studied level (local or systemic). No positive effect was observed in studied interactions. According to results, all three herbivores tested here were able to induce resistance in cucumber and affect the preference of conspecifics. However, whitefly was unable to detect the previous herbivory of conspecifics, although these plants negatively affected whiteflies. According to results of preference experiments, it can be concluded that T. urticae was much more accurate than others at detection of the induced plants. Effect of induced defense on herbivore performance is not always aligned with the preference of the herbivore. Conducting both performance and preference experiments not only revealed the effect of induction of plant defense, but also showed the sensitivity of the herbivore at detection of changes in plant and ability to choose the appropriate host.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cucumber
  • host preference
  • induced defense
  • plant mediated interactions
  • systemic resistance
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